Workplace attitudes have an effect on every person in the organization, from the employees to the customers and company owners. Attitudes help to develop the prevailing workplace environment that determines employee morale, productivity and team-building abilities. Understanding how positive and negative attitudes affect the workplace is an important tool in creating a harmonious and productive workplace in the 21st Century.

Successful organizations depend upon getting the right mix of individuals in the right positions at the right time. Each individual brings the following to the workplace
• Skills
• knowledge
• Attitudes
The Iceberg phenomena is also applicable to human beings … in other words,
Employees’ behavior is like an ice berg with 10% above sea level and 90% below sea level. The 90% below sea level is made up of values, standards, judgments, motives, ethics and beliefs. (Attitudes) These impact the 10% (behaviors) above sea level that is visible to others.

Thus what is an attitude?
Attitude can be defined as ones belief, feeling and ideas, action, tendency towards object, person and ideas or even work.
Nature of Attitude
• Attitude are learned
• It is the feeling, Beliefs of individual and groups.
• These feelings and beliefs are defined as ones Predispositions towards given aspects of the world.
• It is not permanent, it changes
Components of Attitude:
Cognitive Emotional component Behavioral Component
Cognitive Components – The belief, opinion, knowledge or information held by the individual.
Affective Components – Feelings, Sentiments and mood of emotions toward a particular object based on the cognitive components. That is the feelings derived from the knowledge of the object, person, idea or thing.
Behavioral Components – The predisposition to get a favorable or an unfavorable evaluation of something based on the feelings derived from the affective components.

Model of Attitude
Ideas, Belief, Information Positive, Negative Feelings Tendency to behave Attitudes

Functions of Attitude
1. Attitude is a determinant function – Attitudes often help people adjust to their work environment. When Employees are well treated, they are likely to develop a positive attitude towards management and the organization. When employees are berated and paid poorly, they are likely to develop a negative attitude towards the firms and its owners. These attitudes help employees adjust to their environment and are a basis for future behavior. Example – if employees who are well treated are asked about management or the organization, they are likely to say good things, just the reverse may be true for those berated and are poorly paid.

2. Attitude is an adjustment function – Attitude provides a function to adjust in the proper environment. Treated them badly negative attitude and treated them good a positive attitude.

3. Expressive Function- The expressive function helps individual define their self-concept, and facilitates the adoption of sub-culture values considered important. For example – teenagers may dress and behave in a certain way in order to foster their status in a group. The expressive function also helps individuals adopt and internalize the values of a group they have recently joined and as a consequence, they are better able to relate to the group. For example – an individual who has joined an ecology group may now express values manifest in the purchase and use of a bicycle and the recycling of bottles.

4. Attitude is a knowledge function- Attitude provides the standards or frames of reference by which an individual judge objectives or events, and attitudes that provide consistency in our thinking that are particularly relevant. It helps us understand and predict how a certain person is likely to behave and it also helps the manager to change the attitude of another person. For example – he can change people with low self-images by helping them increase their ability to solve their problem, or by providing them with positive feedback on what they accomplish.

Attitude and Job Satisfaction
Lockes’s Model of Job satisfaction and Positive attitude

Organizational Factor for Positive attitude
•Employee satisfaction – Provide them with right salary and get right behaviour.
•Promotion and Fringe Benefits- Provide them benefits for particular situation ,Incentives and Allowances
•Welfare- Good working Condition to make a good belief.
•HRD – Provide them opportunity to good training and development.
•Good working Condition- Working culture, Job Description must be good to make a positive attitude

Group factors-
•Size of the Group – Make Minimum member to avoid conflict and maximize the positive attitude for the organization.
•Supervision – The head of the group must have good administrative skills and adequate people management skills.

Individual Factors-
•Self-esteem- Means treat them as partners do not as workers and their attitude is definitely positive.
•Morale Improvement: by giving them status not only Salary.
•Make them have interest in the job they perform with good and positive attitude to achieve the optimum performance.

Causes of dissatisfaction and Negative attitude-
1. No Promotion and security of job
2. Less Salary and Unfair reduction.
3. Working Condition is poor.
4. Behavioral aspects are bad.
5. No Support from Management.
6. No welfare in Organization, this cause dissatisfaction and a negative attitude for the Organization.
Business managers looking for ways to improve workers’ productivity can start by evaluating the attitude their employees bring to the job each day. A positive or negative attitude affects how workers approach their jobs, and attitudes can have a ripple effect on those around them. In general, a positive attitude will have a positive impact on productivity, while the reverse is also true.

Chetan Mishra (Attitudes and Job Satisfaction)  George N. Root III,
Cranny, C.J., Smith, P.C. & Stone, E.F.(Eds.) (1992). Job Satisfaction: How people feel about their jobs and how it affects their performance. Lexington Books: NY (Note: Part 3 concerning the consequences of job satisfaction is particularly helpful.)
Steers, R.M. & Porter, L.W (Eds.) (1991). Motivation and Work Behavior. (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill:NY. (Note: Chapter 6 on Job Attitudes and Performance is particularly helpful.)



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